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What is Breast Cancer?

Breast cancer is a disorder in which the cells of the breast get uncontrollably large. There are various types of breast cancer. The type of breast cancer is determined by which cells in the breast become cancerous. 

Breast cancer can start in a variety of places in the breast. Lobules, ducts, and connective tissue are the three primary components of a breast. The glands that generate milk are known as lobules. The ducts are tubes that transport milk from the breast to the nipple. Everything is held together by connective tissue, which is made up of fibrous and fatty tissue. Breast cancer usually starts in the ducts or lobules.

Breast cancer can spread to other parts of the body via blood and lymph vessels. Breast cancer is said to have metastasized when it spreads to other regions of the body.

Breast cancer is the second most prevalent cancer diagnosed in women in the United States, after skin cancer. Breast cancer can strike both men and women, although it affects women significantly more frequently.

Significant funding for breast cancer research and awareness has aided in the advancement of breast cancer diagnosis and therapy. Early identification, a novel customised approach to therapy, and a better knowledge of the disease have all contributed to an improvement in breast cancer survival rates and a steady decline in the number of fatalities linked with the disease.

 

Kinds of Breast Cancer 

The following are the most prevalent types of breast cancer: 

Invasive ductal carcinoma is a type of cancer that spreads throughout the body. The cancer cells start in the ducts and spread outside of them to various regions of the breast tissue. Invasive cancer cells can also travel to other places of the body, which is known as metastasis. 

Invasive lobular carcinoma is a type of cancer that spreads throughout the body. Cancer cells start in the lobules and then travel from the lobules to nearby breast tissues. These invasive cancer cells have the potential to spread throughout the body. 

 

Breast Cancer symptoms include-:

Changes in nipple 

Changes in nipple Activate the pop-up dialogue box 

A lump or enlargement in the breast that doesn’t feel like the rest of the breast 

A breast’s size, shape, or appearance changes. 

Dimpling, for example, is a change in the skin around the breast. 

A nipple that has recently inverted 

The pigmented region of skin surrounding the nipple (areola) or breast skin peels, scales, crusts, or flakes. 

The skin over your breasts is reddened or pitted, like the skin of an orange.

But what causes breast cancer? So let’s understand the causes. 

Breast cancer develops when some breast cells begin to grow abnormally, according to doctors. These cells divide at a faster rate than healthy cells and continue to grow, generating a lump or mass. Cells in your breast may spread (metastasize) to your lymph nodes or other places of your body. 

Cells in the milk-producing ducts are the most common source of breast cancer (invasive ductal carcinoma). Breast cancer can start in the glandular tissue called lobules, or in other cells or tissue within the breast (invasive lobular carcinoma). 

Hormonal, lifestyle, and environmental factors have all been linked to an increased risk of breast cancer, according to research. However, it’s unclear why some people with no risk factors get cancer and others with risk factors never do. Breast cancer is most likely caused by a complicated combination between your genetic makeup and your environment.

Inherited breast cancer is a type of cancer that is passed down down the generations. 

Doctors think that 5 to 10% of breast tumours are caused by gene abnormalities passed down through the generations. 

A number of inherited mutant genes have been identified that potentially raise the risk of breast cancer. Breast cancer genes 1 (BRCA1) and 2 (BRCA2) are the most well-known, both of which considerably increase the risk of breast and ovarian cancer. 

If you have a significant family history of breast cancer or other cancers, your doctor may offer a blood test to discover particular BRCA or other gene mutations that are handed down via your family.

Now let’s see how one can prevent breast cancer. 

Making lifestyle changes can help lower your risk of breast cancer. 

Enquire about breast cancer screening with your doctor. Discuss when to start breast cancer screening exams and tests, such as clinical breast exams and mammograms, with your doctor. 

Consult your doctor about the advantages and disadvantages of screening. You and your partner can select which breast cancer screening options are best for you.

Breast cancer cannot be prevented, but breast awareness can help you better understand the natural changes that occur in your breasts and spot any odd signs or symptoms. 

If you must drink alcohol, do it in moderation. If you prefer to drink, keep your alcohol consumption to no more than one drink each day. 

Most days of the week, you should exercise. On most days of the week, try to get in at least 30 minutes of exercise. If you haven’t been active in a while, consult your doctor and begin slowly. 

Hormone therapy for postmenopausal women should be kept to a minimum. Breast cancer risk may be increased by using a combination of hormones. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of hormone therapy with your doctor.

Maintain a healthy body mass index (BMI). If you’re at a healthy weight, try to keep it up. If you need to reduce weight, talk to your doctor about how to do so in a healthy way. Reduce the number of calories you consume each day and gradually increase your physical activity. 

Eat a balanced diet. Breast cancer risk may be lowered in women who follow a Mediterranean diet supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil and mixed nuts. Plant-based foods, such as fruits and vegetables, whole grains, legumes, and nuts, are the mainstays of the Mediterranean diet. Healthy fats, like olive oil, are preferred over butter by Mediterranean dieters, while fish is preferred over red meat.

If your doctor has reviewed your family history and found that you have other risk factors for breast cancer, such as precancerous breast disease, you may consider strategies to lower your risk, such as: 

Medications for preventive (chemoprevention). Selective oestrogen receptor modulators and aromatase inhibitors, for example, reduce the risk of breast cancer in women with a high risk of the disease. 

Because these treatments have a high risk of adverse effects, doctors only prescribe them to women who are at a very high risk of breast cancer. Consult your doctor about the advantages and disadvantages.

Preventive surgery is a type of surgery that is performed in order to prevent women who are at a high risk of breast cancer may elect to having their healthy breasts removed surgically (prophylactic mastectomy). They can also have their healthy ovaries removed (prophylactic oophorectomy) to lower their risk of breast and ovarian cancer.

Prevention is better than cure and early detection is crucial. Get yourself tested if you think you have any symptoms. Eat healthily and be physically active. Let’s beat cancer together. 

 

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